Prof Hadi Riyadi: In 2029, one in two adults will experience obesity, don't let them become fat people

The problem of obesity in adults in Indonesia is quite high. Over the past decade (2007-2018) the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity has increased quite rapidly. Assuming the prevalence increase is still as it is today, it is estimated that in 2029 one in two adults will be obese. If there are no significant improvement efforts, in 2029 there will be an obesity crisis, and Indonesia will become a "fat nation".

This was conveyed by Prof. Hadi Riyadi, Permanent Professor of the Faculty of Human Ecology (Fema) in the Press Conference of the Professor's Pre-Scientific Oration which was held online, (11/8).

In his presentation, Prof. Hadi explained that the causes of obesity consist of two main factors, namely biological factors and environmental factors. Biological factors consist of genetics, gastrointestinal microbiota, hormones, age and sex.
“Obesity in infants and children can occur due to maternal obesity (maternal obesity) and paternal obesity (paternal obesity). Mothers who are overweight/obese during pregnancy or have high weight gain have a chance that their babies and children will also be overweight and obese. Not only because of maternal factors, obesity in children also occurs because of obesity in the father or paternal obesity," he explained.
Meanwhile, he added, obesogenic environmental factors (eg, high-calorie diet, sedentary lifestyle) in fathers can interfere with father's sperm quality. Such as increased oxidative DNA damage of sperm, increased epigenetic modification of sperm, and reduced fertilizing capacity.
"This will have a negative impact on the development of the embryo and fetus, so that future generations will experience obesity and metabolic and reproductive complications," he added.
In addition, Prof Hadi said that in the human body there are more than 100 trillion microorganisms. Research shows gut microbes play an important role in regulating energy balance and body weight. The microbiota may also influence the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
“Hormonal factors also affect obesity. There are two hormones that regulate weight or obesity, namely the hormone leptin and ghrelin. The hormone leptin plays a role in stimulating appetite, so it will stimulate weight loss and obesity. While the hormone ghrelin will increase a person's appetite, so it will increase energy intake and promote weight gain and obesity," he explained.
He added, age and gender factors also affect obesity. The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of obesity. More women are obese. "Our research in Bogor shows that during two years of observation, around 69 percent of women became obese from those who were not obese before," he said.
According to him, factors that can be modified to improve obesity are physical activity and eating behavior. Increased physical activity can increase the body's energy expenditure and have an impact on a fitter body. Another factor that also contributes to obesity is poor eating behavior (eating energy-dense foods).
“The physical activity factor is also a cause of obesity. Lifestyle factors with less physical activity are factors that cause obesity in several of our studies. Sedentary behavior is a trigger for obesity. Lack of sleep and poor sleep quality can lead to weight gain.
According to him, sleeping less than 7 to 8 hours per night can decrease serum leptin and increase serum ghrelin, thereby increasing appetite and weight gain. Prof. Hadi's research and his team on adult women in Bogor showed that overweight and obese women had sleep duration and quality that were below the recommended level.
“Strategies that can be taken to overcome the problem of obesity are making various efforts, starting from making regulations, prevention, obesity management, and surveillance. Priority needs to be given to efforts to change lifestyles, especially physical activity and improving diet quality. An example is increasing the population's physical activity and reducing the intake of foods high in sugar, salt and fat, as well as increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit," he said.

He explained that physical activity of walking for 60 minutes or 40 minutes had an impact on weight loss, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. A brisk walk of at least 10 minutes leads to a younger biological age or a longer life expectancy, which is equivalent to 20 years. Therefore, it is necessary to increase physical activity by making a policy of the National Action Plan for the Acculturation of Physical Activity (RAN-AF). (Zul)

Published Date : 11-Aug-2022

Resource Person : Prof Hadi Riyadi

Keyword : Obesity, Nutrition, IPB University, Permanent Professor, Fema